Dycor MA200M Mass Spectrometer

Updated 4 October 2018



Updates: Ion Pumped Mass Spectrometer, Membrane Inlet

Contents

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Introduction

Picture of Dycor Mass Spectrometer

The Dycor mass spectrometer is a small instrument intended for gas and vapour identification and analysis. The instrument is linear and is sensitive to gaseous chemicals having concentrations from sub ppm to 100% levels. The instrument is portable and has travelled off site by car to solve industrial and environmental problems. A small generator or a battery-inverter combination can be employed for remote use.


Features

  • A Molecular Drag Turbo-molecular pumped vacuum system produces a residual vacuum of 2x10-8 torr.
  • The mass range is from 1 to 200 daltons (mass to charge ratio or m/z).
  • The mass spectrometer is controlled with MASSPORT software. The zip-file also includes other software useful in an analytical lab.
  • With computer control up to 200 masses can be recorded as ion plots along with 0 to 24 analog channels from other instruments.
  • The software has a small library of common gases and vapours.
  • A 50 micron fused silica capillary inlet is used for direct admission of gas samples at atmospheric pressure.
  • A Silicone rubber membrane inlet is used mostly for process gas analysis or gases with a significant dust or water content. Recently a Peltier cooler/heater has been added so the membrane can be used to trap headspace vapours at low temperatures and release them at high temperatures. The temperature range is from 0°C to 90°C
  • A Silicone rubber flow-through inlet can sample dissolved gases from liquids.
  • A small vacuum furnace is used for direct release of gases from solid samples into the ion source. This method is extremely sensitive.
  • A tubular silicone rubber membrane is used for the direct measurement of gases in water.

MASSPORT

MASSPORT is a DOS based program. It is not out of date, as it can now be run on modern PCs by using the program DOSBox. Pressing "Print Screen" with a suitable imaging program running will cause the plot window to be saved for immediate viewing and printing. The MASSPORT data is also saved in the normal way. There may be some problems running this software on modern 64 bit PCs.

The Dycor system 2000 software requires the older control units to be updated before communication can be established. Presumably this is a PROM upgrade.

Like with all recent technology you are slowly being forced to upgrade everything. Fortunately I am at an age where this matters little to me, but I do like reviving systems I used in the past, even for a short while. I have rewritten MASSPORT so it functions with some later PCs, but not the most recent. The file MASPORT2 runs on some later computers and is mass spectrometer only.

I have just tried MASSPORT with DOSBox on a Raspberry Pi 3B. I used a USB to RS232 cable and set the configuration file to look for TTYUSB0. Everything seems to work. The Raspberry Pi could be mounted inside, and powered from, the Dycor console.

My Raspberry Pi configuration file is dosbox-0.74.conf. This is a file in a hidden folder: home/pi/.dosbox/dosbox-0.74.conf. The screen resolution of the Raspberry Pi can be reduced so MASSPORT displays larger.

My MacBook Air also runs MASSPORT without problems using DOSBox. The USB to serial cable driver needs to be installed and the configuration file needs the serial entry "serial1=directserial realport:/cu.usbserial-FTBUQ219" Many other systems should work since DOSBox runs on many computer platforms. I am confident that Linux should work. ChromeOS may work.

The text files produced by MASSPORT are named either *.bar for SPECTRET bar spectra or *.dat for TABDVM multiple ion plots. A typical ion plot file might be named Run1.dat for example. DOS only allows up to 8 letter file names followed by up to 3 letters as a suffix. This is an 8.3 file name. These files can be renamed to *.txt and viewed with a simple text editor or spreadsheet.

Principle

A mass spectrometer sorts out gas mixtures into its constituents as well as producing fragments of each constituent of the gas mixture. The gas mixture enters an ion source where charged molecular fragments are produced by collision with electrons. The ions produced are extracted and are sorted out in a mass filter according to their mass to charge ratio (m/z). The ions are detected as electrical signals with an electron multiplier or a Faraday plate, which is simply a hollow metal tube. The ions land on the surface and are neutralised by extracting electrons from the Faraday plate. The current produced is measured with an electrometer or high impedance amplifier. The electron multiplier improves the signal to noise ratio at least 100 times. The electron multiplier voltage is usually set to produce a gain of about 1000.


Mass Spectrum

Low mass ions are displayed as a vertical line at the left end of a scale while heavy ions are displayed towards the right. The length of a line represents the quantity of that ion. It relates directly to the proportion of that ion forming component in the gas mixture. The horizontal axis is the mass to charge ratio (m/z) in daltons.


Bar-graph mass spectrum of Normal Butane

Multiple Ion Plot

Another way of recording information is to select particular m/z ratios as being representative of a particular compound. Their variations with time are recorded and in this way several components of a mixture can be followed in real-time. These are called multiple ion plots. A logarithmic y axis shows related ions well.


Multiple ion plot showing burning of organic material and calcination of carbonates

It is useful to have a spectral library for reference. Recorded spectra can be compared to this library using computer based search methods. An example is shown above.


Partial Pressure

Picture of Dycor Quadrupole Mass Filter

The term partial pressure is often used with this instrument. It is expressed in torr which is 1/760 of a standard atmosphere. It is simply a number approximately related to the real partial pressure of a component in the vacuum system of the mass spectrometer. Sensitivity factors can be derived for each species by calibration and applied to future work.


Dycor Quadrupole Mass Filter

The Dycor quadrupole, shown at right, behaves as a mass filter. The filter has four 6.5mm diameter stainless steel rods with the opposite rods electrically connected. The rods have an ion source mounted above and two ion detectors sited below, namely a Faraday plate and an electron multiplier. Ions created by the ion source are accelerated along the central axis of the rods by a -70 volt electric field.

An oscillating RF/DC electric field is applied to the rod pairs which causes a spiral ion motion around the axis The applied RF frequency is about 6.7MHz with an amplitude up to a few hundred volts. The RF peak voltage is several times that of the DC voltage so an electric field reversal takes place at twice the RF frequency i.e 13.4MHz.

The ion motion may or may not be stable in the electric field. If the ion motion is stable then the ion reaches the detector and it is measured as a small electric pulse. With many ions the pulses add to produce a continuous signal. If the ion motion is unstable, the ion is neutralised on a surface and it is not measured. The rods with the positive DC voltage applied transmit ions above a particular mass to charge ratio. The rods with the negative DC voltage applied transmit ions below a particular mass to charge ratio. The value of the DC or RF voltage determines which ion is selected. The ratio of the RF to DC voltage determines the resolution by slightly overlapping the low mass range with the high mass range.


Ion Pumped Mass Spectrometer

Recently my MA200 mass spectrometer has been off-site, monitoring the output of a pilot plant. I have looked at the old parts I have from defunct equipment formerly used by others. With some component exchanges there was enough to build up an ion-pumped Mass Spectrometer. Previously I built several mass spectrometers in the years from 1988 to 1996. The old components I now have are therefore about 22 to 30 years old.


Ion Pumped Mass Spectrometer

The vacuum pump is a Varian 911-5005 8 litre per second diode ion pump fitted with a Varian 911-0030 magnet. The power supply is a small +3500 volt Varian 921-0015 controller. These items were purchased many years ago as refurbished items from Duniway Stockroom. The ion pump is connected in place of the normal turbo pump. A backing pump is only needed for start-up. Otherwise the set-up is conventional, apart from the inlet system. A manual for the ion pump is here. Some further information about ion pumps is in the manuals available from Duniway Stockroom. A wide range of vacuum equipment is available from this source. Look under Documents - Data Sheets for Ion Pump operation, applications and troubleshooting guides. Agilent, who now own Varian, also have informative documentation about ion pumps.

Ideally a turbo pump is required for starting an ion pump. Alternatively a Sorption Pump could be used with liquid nitrogen. My method, using just a backing pump, is to heat the mass spectrometer while rough pumping. The high vacuum valve is closed and the pump is disconnected. The clean mass spectrum shows that no oil backstreaming occurred. As the mass spectrometer cools an additional vacuum is created which is sufficient to start the ion pump.

There may be a delay before the ion pump starts to work. There will be a slow current drop and a corresponding voltage rise which will accelerate as the pump starts to work. If the current rises there is probably a leak present. There may be pauses in the pumpdown while adsorbed gases are dealt with. In my case, after 25 years, there was one pause and then a steady progression to residual gas levels below 10-7 torr.

The high vacuum valve and the backing pump fittings can be replaced with a cold welded copper pinch-off fitting once the high vacuum performance is established. Different backing pump fittings will be needed for the initial evacuation. To pinch off the copper tubing try the tool used by refrigeration engineers for cold welded copper pipe seals. The finished seal is sharp and fragile so it should be covered with heat-shrink tubing.


Power Consumption

The 3500 volt Varian 921-0015 power supply draws 5 watts from the mains at standby pressures. This is much less than a neighboring LCD display, which draws 23 watts. At 3 x 10-6 torr the power drawn from the mains rises to about 8.5 watts

The Dycor console draws about 125 watts from the mains with the CRT display on and about 100 watts with the display off. The Raspberry Pi computer and power supply uses 4 watts running MASSPORT. The maximum total power consumption for a working mass spectrometer and computing system is about 160 watts with the CRT display on or 140 watts with it off. This reduces to 5 watts under standby conditions.

In the distant past I used ion pumped mass spectrometers as field instruments in geothermally active locations as well as at several industrial sites. The low standby power consumption makes it easy to relocate this mass spectrometer by car while maintaining a good vacuum.


Membrane Inlet

Membrane inlet with plug

Any inlet system needs to be matched to the ion pump so that the gas admission rate matches the pumping speed. This is more critical for ion pumps with lower pumping speeds. In my case I have developed a simple membrane inlet which allows for standby operation when not in use.

This design is uses a KF16 vacuum centering ring with a built-in sintered metal filter. A disk of 0.5 mm thick silicone rubber, slightly larger than the filter, is wedged in place by a 9.8 mm OD washer. The internal diameter is a nominal 10 mm so the silicone rubber is well compressed by the washer. Excess silicone rubber is cut away and some RTV silicone sealant is applied around the edges of the washer to complete the seal. The active diameter of the inlet, represented by the hole in the washer, is 3.75 mm. The optimum diameter is probably a bit less than this or a second membrane layer can be used. The required exposed diameter will depend on the membrane thickness used. Additional 3.75 mm diameter silicone discs can be cut and added to the membrane in the centre, until the pressure settles to an optimum value. This silicone rubber adheres to itself and is sold in electronic shops as weather proofing electrical tape. Before use, I heated the membrane at 40°C for a few hours to remove any volatile organic compounds.

On the other side of the KF16 centering ring a drilled aluminium plug was machined and pressed in place and sealed with 5-minute Epoxy adhesive. The short 1.5 mm OD stainless-steel line to the mass spectrometer was pressed in place and sealed with Loctite 243. My approach to the use of adhesives in vacuum systems is to use only tiny amounts. Choose materials which don't smell of any solvents. I simply did a little bit of lathe work and used components that were available here.


Membrane Performance

The working pressure is about 3 x 10-6 torr for two 0.5 mm thick silicone rubber membrane layers with an exposed diameter of 3.75 mm. At this pressure the pumping speed is almost constant over a moderate pressure range so pump characteristics should not influence experiments. Here I am using the mass spectrometer calibration for pressure. The ion pump current suggests the pressure is about 3 times higher. The ion pump is essentially an uncalibrated Penning gauge with an unknown leakage current. When the Dycor mass spectrometers are shipped they are calibrated against a reference Bayard Alpert gauge. The open ion source of the Dycor mass spectrometer is very similar to this gauge.

Running with the membrane inlet continuously in an open state will shorten the life of the ion pump. I devised a simple plug with an O-ring seal which reduces the mass spectrometer residual pressure to well below 10-7 torr. The rest of the plug occupies the space above the membrane. A short 3.75 mm diameter spigot is machined on the end to lightly press on the membrane surface. The trick is to have the spigot touching the membrane just before the O ring completes it's seal. A little silicone grease on the O-ring helps with the initial sealing. Thereafter the increasing vacuum holds everything in place. There may be an initial pressure pulse when the plug is fitted, which momentarily increases the ion pump current.

There is no need for perfection here. Any reading in the low 10-7 torr range would do. The aim is simply to move into a pressure range where the pump lifetime is reasonable. The 8 l/s ion pump specification gives an approximate lifetime of 40000 hours at 1 x 10-6 torr. A low standby pressure also means that moderate power cuts can be tolerated.

When the plug is removed there may be a period of adjustment as the membrane rebounds from the pressure of the spigot. A total pressure of about 3 x 10-6 torr is attained. There may also be some more argon instability as the ion pump works harder. There seems to be a minimal effect on the other components of air such as nitrogen and oxygen. Other ion pumps such as the Nobel Diode type where one electrode is tantalum, Triode ion pumps or the rebuilt Varian style 8 l/s Duniway Galaxy Diode ion pump may be more suitable.


Other Membrane Designs

There are many ways to design a membrane inlet. Because of the limited pumping speed of small ion pumps the membrane inlet diameter will need to be smaller than usual to maintain ideal working pressures. At 0.5 mm thickness a self supporting membrane is possible which would simplify the design. The layers would consist of a membrane seat, the membrane, a washer and a threaded cap which would bear down on the washer. To allow for the absence of the backing filter, and with half the membrane thickness, an exposed membrane diameter of about 1 to 3 mm would be a good starting point. A 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) Swagelok fitting with ferrules could be adapted. The 3.75 mm diameter membrane disc would be clamped between the ferrules giving an exposed diameter of 1.6 mm. The main requirement is to have no leaks and the abilty to close off into a low vacuum stand-by state. The 1.6 mm diameter membrane surface should reduce the mass spectrometer pressure by a factor of about 5.

A 1/16th inch diameter rod, with a smooth polished end, could be used to press on the membrane. The membrane would first seal to the rod edge and, as the vacuum increased, to the whole end face of the rod. This would significantly reduce the gas transmission rate. A simplification would be to find a membrane diameter or thickness where the mass spectrometer performance was good, along with extended ion pump life and reduced argon instability.


Mass Spectra

The residual mass spectrum of an ion pumped mass spectrometer can look a little unusual. The spectrum has masses for hydrogen (2), water (2, 16, 17, 18), Air (28, 32), argon (40) and carbon dioxide (44). There are traces of nitric oxide (30, 14), carbon monoxide (28, 12), residual hydrocarbons and secondary peaks for the above gases. Note that the residual pressure is very low at about 5 x 10-8 torr. The residual pressure can be reduced further after warming the mass spectrometer to about 100°C for a few hours. The following mass spectrum showing residual ions was emailed from my Raspberry Pi computer.


Residual Mass Spectrum
Residual Mass Spectrum

Species such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and some carbon dioxide are created by the Penning discharge in the ion pump. There are carbon inclusions in the titanium plates of the pump as well as residual hydrocarbons and water. Argon is elevated because there is no chemical reaction with titanium in the ion pump. Burial of argon by metal sputtering is the only pumping mechanism. There may be some argon signal instability as already buried argon is sometimes released due to sputtering of titanium metal. Triode pumps are more stable in this respect as the pump envelope can act as a surface to trap neutral gases with no sputtering. In the residual spectrum carbon dioxide is elevated because of water-carbon reactions in the Penning discharge of the ion pump. At working pressures the membrane inlet admits carbon dioxide at about 5 times the rate of many other gases, probably because of the linear molecule shape.


Application

For evolved gas experiments from heated samples I would use an aquarium pump, a silica gel drier and a small temperature controlled tube furnace. The exit flow would be cooled and passed over the membrane inlet. The transparent cover shown can be machined and drilled to suit. When not required the ion pump can be put into a standby state by inserting the plug.


Air Mass Spectrum
Air Mass Spectrum

It remains to be seen if a small 8 l/sec ion pump can perform well long term. Routine operation requires some care in use. Reading the ion pump manual is very helpful. My old 20 l/sec Varian triode ion pump was very useful in the past, but I do not have a suitable power supply.